Document Type : Original Article
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
Background: Since bone defects can result in different disabilities, many efforts have been made to bone tissue engineering. In this case, scaffolds play an important role as a key element of tissue engineering in providing three-dimensional structure for cell growth in vitro
Objective: The aim of the present study was to provide the three-dimensional biological bioscaffold from the bovine femur dense bone and investigate the possibility of its potential for application in tissue engineering as biological 3D ECM bioscaffold via mesenchymal stem cells seeding and differentiation toward bone tissue.
Methods: For the preparation of bioscaffolds, after cutting bovine femur bone into small pieces, demineralization and decellularization were done. Bioscaffolds biocompatibility was evaluated using an MTT assay. The morphological and cell adhesion characteristics of Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on the bioscaffolds were evaluated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) technique. Finally, the cells were treated with an osteogenic differentiation medium and then evaluated for differentiation.
Results: Histological studies showed that the use of sodium dodecyl sulfate (2.5%) for 8 h eliminated the cells. Radiography and calcium oxalate test confirmed demineralization. MTT assay and SEM studies showed that the obtained bioscaffolds are biocompatible and could provide an optimum three-dimensional environment for cell adhesion and movement. Moreover, the Alizarin red staining showed a higher differentiation rate for BMSCs.
Conclusion: In the present study, bone-derived 3D bioscaffold showed an important role in the growth and differentiation of BMSCs, due to the natural characteristics, cell adhesion properties, and potential to enhance differentiation toward bone tissue. It may have the potential for use as bioscaffold as supporting metrics for maintenance, growth in bone tissue engineering.