Prevalence of Depression and Pain Among Patients with Spinal Cord Injury in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Document Type : Narrative Review


1 Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran

2 Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

3 Student Research Committee, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran



Context: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a disorder that causes several adverse effects on all aspects of the individual’s life and disrupts the normal routine of life.
Objectives: The present study aimed at evaluating the prevalence of depression and pain among patients with SCI.
Methods: The present systematic review was conducted using the Iranian literature. The study population included all articles available in Iranian and international databases as well as Google Scholar search engine. For this purpose, databases including SID, Magiran, IranMedex, IranDoc, Scopus, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and ProQuest were searched. The quality of published articles was assessed by two highly qualified researchers; the primary search was also performed separately. The data were analyzed with comprehensive meta-analyses (CMA) statistical package.
Results: According to the findings, the prevalence of mild depression in the studied patients was 22.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 17.50 - 28.8), moderate depression 19.6% (95% CI: 14.7% - 25.7%), and severe depression was 12.1% (95% CI: 8.3% - 17.3%); in addition, 46.5% of the patients had no depression (95% CI: 26.7% - 67.6%), and 65.9% of the subjects complained of pain (95% CI: 53.9% - 76.1%).
Conclusions: Because of high prevalence of pain and depression among patients with SCI, it is essential to take appropriate measures to prevent depression and pain in such patients in order to improve their health status and quality of life.