Patterns of Maxillofacial Fractures: A Systematic Review

Document Type : Narrative Review


1 Private Practice, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon, Tehran, Iran

2 Dentist, Tehran university of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran

3 Trauma Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran



Context: The face is the most exposed part of the body; therefore, the maxillofacial region is vulnerable to trauma. The evaluation of the incidence and etiology of maxillofacial traumas is necessary to disclose the pattern of fractures.
Objectives: The study aimed to evaluate the pattern of maxillofacial fractures (MFs) and associated injuries by a literature review.
Data Sources: Original papers investigating the pattern of MFs and associated injuries published before November 2018 were examined. Online sources including PubMed, Scopus, Medline, Wiley, ISI Web of Knowledge, and EMBASE were searched for these papers. The extracted data included study characteristics, participants’ characteristics, MFs causes, and distribution of various MFs.
Results: In total, 17,055 patients (men: 83.61%; women: 16.38%) were examined. The age range was 21 - 30 years in 40.89% of the patients with MFs. The most common risk factor of fractures was road traffic accidents (45.33%). Mandibular fractures were more frequent than other injuries. Condyle was the most common mandibular fracture (25.89%). Le Fort II was the most common site in the middle-third fractures (30.29%).
Conclusions: The results showed that maxillofacial fractures were more frequent in men, in the age of 21 to 30 years, in the site of the mandible, and mainly caused by road traffic accidents.