Association Between Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Helmet Use Among Motorcycle Riders




Background: Use of helmets plays a major role in preventing injuries or decreasing injury severity among motorcycle riders. Use of helmets may depend on personal factors such as psychological factors. Objectives: The aim of this study was to independently assess the association between helmet use among motorcycle riders and ADHD scores, with controlling the accident history and was taken more sensitive measures if helmet use was different between motorcycle riders, according to their ADHD scores. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done on 205 motorcycle riders referred to Kerman Referral Injury Hospital after a motorcycle traffic accident. Friends and family members possessing motorcycles who visited the patient in this facility were included in our sample. The Persian version of the Conner’s Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS) self-report (screening version) was used in order to screen for adult ADHD. CAARS scores were compared between those who usually used helmets and those who did not. Results: Univariable analysis showed the mean of the age variable was significantly higher in the helmeted group, 26.94 ± 7.72 vs. 23.08 ± 7.7.32, (P < 0.001). The majority of the non-helmeted group was single (P < 0.001). Subjects with secondary educational level were more often in the helmeted group (P = 0.007). Daily and weekly driving hours were higher in the non-helmeted group (P = 0.002 and P = 0.004). Most of the subjects in the helmeted group had a driving license in comparison with the other group (P < 0.001). There was not a significant association between SES and having hyperactive children and helmet use (P = 0.159). In all ADHD subscales, a significant association was found and scores were higher in the non-helmeted group (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, multivariable analysis did not confirm the association of the ADHD screening score with helmet use. Conclusions: The result of this study did not find an independent association between ADHD and helmet use.