Overview of Agents Used for Emergency Hemostasis




Context: In today’s modern world, despite the multiple advances made in the field of medicine, hemorrhagic shock is still the main cause of battlefield mortality and the second most prevalent cause of mortality in civilian trauma. Hemostatic agents can play a key role in establishing hemostasis in prehospital situations and preventing hemorrhage-associated death. In this respect, this article aims to review different aspects of known hemostatic agents. Evidence Acquisition: A comprehensive search of the academic scientific databases for relevant keywords was conducted; relevant articles were compiled and assessed. Results: Hemostatic agents can establish hemostasis by means of different mechanisms, including concentrating coagulation factors, adhesion to the tissues, in which traumatic hemorrhage occurred, and delivering procoagulant factors to the hemorrhage site. Presently, these hemostatics have been significantly improved with regard to efficacy and in adverse consequences, resulting from their use. Several hemostatic dressings have been developed to the degree that they have received FDA approval and are being used practically on the battlefield. In addition, there are currently several case reports on the use of such hemostatics in the hospital setting, in conditions where commonly known approaches fail to stop life-threatening bleeding. Conclusions: The use of hemostatic dressings and agents is one of the main advancements achieved in recent decades. However, it can be claimed that the ideal hemostatic has not been recognized yet; therefore, this topic needs to be brought into focus and further addressed.