School Resilience Components in Disasters and Emergencies: A Systematic Review

Document Type : Narrative Review


1 Department of Health in Emergencies and Disasters, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran

2 Health Human Resource Research Center, Department of Health in Disasters and Emergencies, School of Management and Information Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

3 Research Center for Nursing and Midwifery Care, Department of Nursing, Nursing and Midwifery School, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran

4 Department of Health Education and Promotion, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran

5 Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran

6 Department of Civil Engineering, Yazd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd, Iran



Introduction: Schools have many roles and capacities before and after disasters. Resilience plays an important role in maintaining schools’ performance after disasters. This study systematically reviewed the literature to identify the components of school resilience in emergencies and disasters.
Methods: In this study, Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases were systematically searched using “resilience”, “risk”, “disaster”, “emergency” and “school” as keywords. In total, 8,053 studies were reviewed in several stages and eventually, 26 articles were selected. Other articles were excluded due to the lack of inclusion criteria or being irrelevant. Five other articles were included in the study by reviewing the references. Finally, 31 relevant articles were analyzed. The quality of the articles was assessed based on the PRISMA checklist.
Results: The evaluation of articles based on content analysis resulted in the emergence of 4 themes, 11 subthemes, and 99 codes. The themes included structural factors, non-structural factors, functional-process factors, and facilities. The subthemes included building standards, school environment, physical safety of the building, equipment and facilities, safety and retrofit of non-structural components, infrastructures, communication (internal and external), education, management, health, and human-financial resources.
Conclusions: The factors and dimensions affecting the resilience of schools were recognized. Different dimensions should be considered to increase the school’s ability, andmaintain its performance and appropriate response to disasters. The determined indices can be used by policy- and decision-makers when confronting emergencies and disasters to assess the resilience of schools against the risks.