Epidemiologic Patterns of Maxillofacial Fractures: A 5-year Study in One of the Referral Hospitals of Iran

Document Type : Original Article


1 Trauma Research center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Trauma Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 Trauma Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department, Craniofacial Trauma Research Center, Islamic Azad University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

4 Trauma research center, Baqiyatallah University of medical sciences, Tehran, Iran


Introduction: Maxillofacial trauma resulting in fractures are among the most common reasons for referral to the ER. Epidemiological fracture patterns are widely dependent on cultural, environmental, and socio-economic parameters. This study aimed to assess the epidemiology and prominent patterns of maxillofacial injuries and fractures in Iran.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at a trauma research center. In this study, medical records of patients with maxillofacial fractures from 2010 to 2015 were reviewed. Factors such as age, gender, GCS at admission, hospital stay, fracture cause, site of fractured bones, ocular injuries, brain injuries, trigeminal involvement, facial nerve involvement, soft tissue injuries, and upper face fractures were evaluated. Treatments rendered were also reviewed. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 22.
Results: 283 patients with a mean age of 32.48 years and a male-to-female ratio of 4:1 was seen. The most common age group was the third decade of life (38.2%). The most common causes of fracture were MVA (66.4%), falls (13.1%), and assault (9.2%). The most common fractured bones were: mandible (42.04%), orbit (39.57%), and maxilla (37.1%). The most common treatment was open reduction (94%) and internal fixation with miniplates (49.5%). The hospital stay duration was 3.4 days (average).
Conclusion: In this study males in the third decade of life were the most prone to facial fractures. Associated injuries were common and must not be neglected on physical examination. The profession, culture, and social differences in the society are influential in facial fractures and thus the pattern will differ in different nations.