Document Type: Narrative Review
Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
Nursing Faculty, Aja University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Trauma Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Trauma Research Center, Nursing Faculty, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Background: Patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit (ICU) are at risk for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP).
Objectives: To summarize the results of published, randomized, clinical trials (RCTs), a meta-analysis was performed to examine the effect of subglottic secretion drainage (SSD) on the prevalence and outcomes of VAP in adult patients undergoing mechanical ventilation.
Methods: A comprehensive search based on specific terms was performed as a systematic review and meta-analysis by a computerized database search in the national and international databases including MagIran, SID, Scopus, PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Cochrane Central, and IRCT as well as references from 1990 to 2018 in English and Persian languages. RCTsof SSDwere considered as common careof adultpatientsundergoingmechanical ventilationin the currentmeta-analysis. Data analysis was carried out through the random and fixed effects model, and the heterogeneity was investigated by I2 and Q-Cochrane index. The data were analyzed using STATA 11.
Results: A total of 24 eligible RCTs with 2434 patients were identified. The overall risk ratio for VAP was 14.7 (95% confidence interval (CI): 11.1 - 18.4); mortality 25.8 (95% CI: 17.3 - 34.3); length of ICU stay 13.4 (95% CI: 7.8 - 18.9) and hospital stay 23.2 (95% CI: 12.5 - 33.9); ventilation days 14.9 (95% CI: 7.3 - 22.6); airway secretion 10.2 (95% CI: 4.9 - 15.5); and APACHEII 19.5 (95% CI: 14.6 - 24.3).
Conclusions: SSD is recommended to prevent VAP, and reduce mortality rate and the ICU LOS, especially in the high-risk patients undergoing mechanical ventilation for a long period of time.