Context: The aim of the study was to review medical aspects of earthquakes in Iran in order to help clinicians obtain a better understanding of this natural disaster and select better therapeutic methods. Methods: Two authors independently searched articles through scientific databases, such as PubMed, MEDLINE, Wiley, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Scopus. The keywords that were applied to search these articles included: Earthquake, disaster, Iran, physical phenomena, geological phenomena, health, trauma, medicine, wounds, and injuries. Two researchers independently assessed titles and abstracts of all studies and then included them based on the relevance. Results: Fourteen studies were included in the current study. Fractures were the most common injury. The results showed hospitals, relief agencies, and municipal services should be built in a manner appropriate for earthquake conditions. A gender-sensitive approach for planning and management of trauma patients after a disaster could allow better and more effective healthcare delivery. Conclusions: This review of earthquakes that occurred in Iran aimed to provide a better understanding of this natural disaster, and allow selection of better therapeutic methods, which is important in disaster management.